The GRR Club understands that running in the heat of summer takes lot of effort and proper precautions and preparations are to be followed :
Avoid dehydration! You can lose between 6 and 12 oz. of fluid for every 20 minutes of running. Therefore it is important to pre-hydrate (10 - 15 oz. of fluid 10 to 15 minutes prior to running) and drink fluids every 20 - 30 minutes along your running route. To determine if you are hydrating properly, weigh yourself before and after running. You should have drunk one pint of fluid for every pound you're missing. Indications that you are running while dehydrated are a persistent elevated pulse after finishing your run and dark yellow urine. Keep in mind that thirst is not an adequate indicator of dehydration.
Avoid running outside if the heat is above 98.6 degrees and the humidity is above 70-80%. While running, the body temperature is regulated by the process of sweat evaporating off of the skin. If the humidity in the air is so high that it prevents the process of evaporation of sweat from the skin, you can quickly overheat and literally cook your insides from an elevated body temperature. Check your local weather and humidity level.
When running, if you become dizzy, nauseated, have the chills, or cease to sweat. STOP RUNNING, find shade, and drink water or a fluid replacement drink such as Gatorade Endurance. If you do not feel better, get help. Heatstroke occurs when the body fails to regulate its own temperature, and the body temperature continues to rise. Symptoms of heatstroke include mental changes (such as confusion, delirium, or unconsciousness) and skin that is red, hot, and dry, even under the armpits. Heatstroke is a life-threatening medical emergency, requiring emergency medical treatment.
Run in the shade whenever possible and avoid direct sunlight and blacktop. When you are going to be exposed to the intense summer rays of the sun, apply at least 15 spf sunscreen and wear protective eyewear that filters out UVA and UVB rays. Consider wearing a visor that will shade your eyes and skin but will allow heat to transfer off the top of your head.
If you have heart or respiratory problems or you are on any medications, consult your doctor about running in the heat. In some cases it may be in your best interests to run indoors. If you have a history of heatstroke/illness, run with extreme caution.
Children should run in the morning or late afternoon hours, but should avoid the peak heat of the day to prevent heat related illnesses. It is especially important to keep children hydrated while running and playing outdoors in the heat.
Do wear light colored breathable clothing. Do notbc wear long sleeves or long pants or sweat suits. Purposefully running in sweat suits hot days to lose water weight is dangerous!
Plan your route so you can refill water bottles or find drinking fountains. City parks, local merchants, and restaurants are all good points to incorporate on your route during hot weather running. Be sure to tell someone where you are running how long you think you will gone, and carry identification.
Stay hydrated, cool, and safe this summer!
Cold Weather Running Tips
Always follow the GRR General Safety Guidelines
Leave the headphones at home. Your ears may help you avoid dangers your eyes cannot see. Wet, wintery conditions may weaken tree limbs causing them to fall. Hearing the crack before the fall may be the difference between avoiding a falling branch or being tackled by a dead limb.
Avoid running on the roads in extreme conditions. Drivers have a decreased ability to maneuver and stop.
Winter means fewer daylight hours. Wear bright-colored, reflective clothing or a reflective vest so you are noticeable to area traffic. For added visibility, wear a lightweight headlamp or flashing light.
Wear layers of clothing that will help you maintain your core body temperature during the run but will keep you warm during warm-up and cool-down phases.
If you drive to a running trail or route, leave a change of dry clothes and a blanket in the car for emergency situations.
Stay alert and aware of your surroundings and the weather conditions.
Know where to find shelter on your route if the weather gets really bad.
Do not ignore shivering. It is an important first sign that the body is losing heat, and you may be in danger of hypothermia in case of extreme weather condition.
GRR Safety RULE BOOK
Always follow the GRR General Safety Guidelines
Don't wear headphones. Use your ears to be aware of your surroundings. Your ears may help you avoid dangers your eyes may miss during evening or early morning runs.
Run against traffic so you can observe approaching automobiles. By facing on-coming traffic, you may be able to react quicker than if it is behind you.
Look both ways before crossing. Be sure the driver of a car acknowledges your right-of-way before crossing in front of a vehicle. Obey traffic signals.
Carry identification or write your name, phone number, and blood type on the inside sole of your running shoe. Include any medical information.
Always stay alert and aware of what's going on around you. The more aware you are, the less vulnerable you are.
Carry a cell phone or change for a phone call. Know the locations of public phones along your regular route.
Trust your intuition about a person or an area. React on your intuition and avoid a person or situation if you're unsure. If something tells you a situation is not "right", it isn't.
Alter or vary your running route pattern; run in familiar areas if possible. In unfamiliar areas, be careful and alert.
Run with a partner. Run with a dog.
Write down or leave word of the direction of your run. Tell friends and family of your favorite running routes.
Avoid unpopulated areas, deserted streets, and overgrown trails. Avoid unlit areas, especially at night. Run clear of parked cars or bushes.
Ignore verbal harassment and do not verbally harass others. Use discretion in acknowledging strangers. Look directly at others and be observant, but keep your distance and keep moving.
Wear reflective material if you must run before dawn or after dark. Avoid running on the street when it is dark.
Practice memorizing license tags or identifying characteristics of strangers.
Carry a noisemaker. Get training in self-defense.
When using multi-use trails, follow the rules of the road. If you alter your direction, look over your shoulder before crossing the trail to avoid a potential collision with an oncoming cyclist or passing runner.
Call police immediately if something happens to you or someone else, or you notice anyone out of the ordinary. It is important to report incidents immediately.
FUNdamentals of Youth Running
GRR promotes the following guidelines for youth running.
Make Running Fun First and foremost, running should be fun. Do not use running as a punishment. Encourage children to participate and try their best. It is okay for children to walk if they are participating in a running activity or event.
Emphasize good technique Teach youth good form early and help eliminate bad habits such as excessive arm movement, twisting of the upper body, or over striding.
Focus on participation and self-improvement Running should be about participation and developing a healthy lifestyle, not about being the fastest runner.
Consider individual differences Avoid a one size fits all running program. Accommodate for differences in abilities within the group. Children mature both physically and emotionally at different rates, and this will factor into their ability to participate in running. If children love running, let them run a distance they are comfortable with over a 30-45 minute time period. For some children this may be 2-5 miles during that time period. Keep in mind children should get at least 60 minutes of exercise a day to maintain a healthy body, and running is the perfect form of exercise for children.
Limit systematic training and competition before puberty Before puberty children are rapidly growing and changing. Excessive (over 60 minutes), systematic training may interfere with normal growth and cause injury in a child, especially if pushed beyond their own limits by an adult. Between the ages of 3 and 9, encourage regular exercise, which can include organized running for fun. Around the age of 8-12, children may enjoy participation in a more organized running program that has a more systematic training environment that lasts 2-3 months. Around the age of 12 for girls and 14 for boys, key developmental changes will enable students to slowly increase training distance and duration leading to participation in a systematic and competitive training environment.
Increase running workload gradually Running workload includes volume (distance), intensity (speed or effort), and frequency (number of days a week). Just like with adult, running training, children should start a running program with a low volume, low intensity, and limit frequency to a couple days a week. Workload should increase over the duration of the program, but should remain appropriate for the individual student.
Participate in age appropriate running events Running in a kid's fun run or youth track event can be a great experience for kids. For children 5 and under focus on "dash" events that range from a few yards to one mile. For children 5 and over, kids fun runs that are a 1/2 to 2 miles long may be considered, but allow for a combination of running and walking. Children ages 6 and over may want to participate in a 5K run/walk. Be sure to allow for walking in a 5K and let them go at their own pace. Children ages 13 to 15 and older may want to participate in a 10K to half marathon event. Children 18 and older may want to participate in a marathon or further distance. These are general guidelines and the distance a child can physically and emotionally tolerate will depend on the individual, however longer distances (10K and over) should wait until after puberty.
Before Those First Steps!
GRR promotes the following guidelines for youth running.
There are very few people who should not exercise because of cardiovascular, structural, muscular, or other problems. It is very important to ensure that you are not in this risk category.
Before beginning any exercise, diet or other improvement program, be sure to have yourself and the program evaluated by specialists in the areas you are pursuing.
The advice on this website is offered as such-advice from one exerciser to another.
It is not mean to be a prescription and should be evaluated as noted above and below.
Specific structures and problems of individuals may require program modifications.
In each area, find specialists who are also knowledgeable about the positive and other effects of exercise and running.
Ask several respected leaders in the fitness community for recommendations of specialists.
Always back off any exercise or program when you feel any risk of injury or health.
The benefits come from regular exercise and steady adherence to a long-term program.
Never radically increase the amount of exercise or drastically change diet and other health elements. Joining a group helps motivation!
Have fun and you'll want to continue.
A new begining
While the physical rewards of running are substantial, most long-time runners acknowledge that the psychological ones are unique and more powerful. Every day we hear from runners who have participated in a variety of other life activities. They tell us every day that running leaves them feeling better than anything else they do. Other Benefits: The "Runner's High" Endorphins Vitality An Attitude Adjustment Achievement
Creativity More productivity, less fatigue Friendships and bonding
Your Running ForM
Running form mistakes can aggravate injuries. The most efficient and gentle running form is a "shuffle." The feet stay next to the ground, touching lightly with a relatively short stride. When running at the most relaxed range of shuffling motion, the ankle mechanism does a great deal of the work, and little effort is required from the calf muscle. When the bounce off the ground increases, the foot pushes harder and the stride gets longer, there are more aches, pains and injuries. Time goal runners need to run faster, and this means some increase in stride length, greater bounce and foot pushing. By gradually increasing the intensity of speed training (with sufficient rest intervals and rest days between), feet and legs can adapt, but there is risk of injury. Be sensitive to your weak links and don't keep running if there is the chance that you may be starting an injury. Posture is an individual issue. Most of the runners I've worked with find that an upright posture (like a "puppet on a string") is best in all ways. When runners use a forward lean there is a tendency to develop lower back pain and neck pain. A small minority of runners naturally run with a forward lean with no problems. In this case, one should run the way that is most natural. Suggestions for running smoother, reducing irritation to weak links
Feet-low to the ground, using a light touch of the foot. Try not to bounce more than an inch off the ground. Let your feet move the way that is natural for them. If you tend to land on your heel and roll forward, do so. But if you have motion control issues, a foot device can provide minor correction to bring you into alignment and avoid irritating a weak link.
Posture-In general, good upright posture is good running posture: head over shoulders, over hips as the feet come underneath. Be a good "puppet on a string".
Legs-stay low to the ground, maintaining a gentle stride that allows your leg muscles to stay relaxed. It's better to have a shorter stride and focus on quicker turnover if you want to speed up.
Your Running ForM
Troubleshooting Form - Related Injuries
Lower back - forward lean, overstride, too few walk breaks Neck pain - forward lean Hamstring pain - striding too long, stretching Shin pain on front - stride length too long, especially on downhills Shin pain on inside - over pronation Achilles - stretching, speedwork Calf pain - stretching, speedwork Knee pain - too few walk breaks, overpronation
Beware of injuries (Listen to your body)
Common Causes of Injuries
It's a physiological fact that the constant use of a muscle, tendon or joint without a break will result in earlier fatigue and reduced work potential. Continuing to run/walk when the muscle is extremely fatigued increases the quantity of micro-tears dramatically and is a major cause of injury.
By pacing conservatively and by inserting walk breaks early and often, you will gain a great deal of control over the fatigue process. You'll empower the muscles to maintain resiliency and capacity. This lowers the chance of breakdown, by significantly reducing the accumulating damage that leads to injury.
Aggravating Factors: prior damage, body weight, speed, stride length, bounce off of the ground, stretching
How do you know if you are injured? When you notice any of these symptoms, take at least a day or two off from running (always be sensitive to your weak links): Inflammation - swelling, puffiness or thickening Loss of function - the area doesnt work correctly or move normally Pain - if the pain does not go away as you get warmed up and walk slowly, or the pain increases, STOP!
Here are some of the most common injuries with some tips on how treat them. For the best advice, see your doctor. IT Band (Ilio-tibial band) Inflamed Achilles Black Toenail
Heel Spur Hyponatremia Knee Injuries Plantar Fasciitis Shin Splints
Get set go!!! Race day plan
The Night Before
Pack your bag Eat a very light meal or nothing. (I don't believe in carbo-loading the night before races, even marathons. Drink 4-6 ounces of water every waking hour (unless you hear a sloshing sound in your stomach). Try to relax so you can sleep. But if you can't sleep, the race isn't lost. (I've run some of my best races after sleepless nights.)
Shoes, socks, shirt, shorts, sweats or running suit Gloves, hat, turtleneck, etc., if cold
Water (about a quart) Bandages and Vaseline Some money as needed for registration, gas, food afterward, etc. Race number if sent to you in mail, 4 small safety pins copy of "Race Morning" instructions (see below)
It's hard to remember all these things at the last minute. Photocopy these pages and put them in your bag the night before.
After you wake, drink 4-6 ounces of water every half hour.
Drink your last water a half-hour before the race.
Don't eat, it won't get processed in time to do you any good. (Those who need to boost their blood sugar level should eat the same food, in the same quantity that they have found works for them in other races or hard workouts.)
30-40 minutes before the race, start your warm-up.
Get set go!!! Race day plan
Before You "step the Start Line"
Walk 5 minutes to activate the running muscles gently and prepare the body for exertion, then jog for 1-2 minutes and walk for 1-2 minutes.
Jog slowly 10-20 minutes. Start very slowly, then speed up gradually to a relaxed warm-up pace.
Stretch gently if you need to stretch (iliotibial band injury, etc.). I've seen more problems when runners stretch before fast runs, than among those who don't stretch at all. If you have found stretching to be beneficial for you, then go ahead, but be very careful.
Walk another 3-5 minutes to relax. About 10-15 minutes before the start, do some accelerations to get your body ready for race conditions. Do 5-10 x 50-100 yards.
Start slowly, accelerate gradually to race pace, then ease back to a slow jog.
Walk again, 3-5 minutes. About 5-10 minutes before the start, relax, sit down, walk around - whatever takes the edge off. Some runners put their legs above their heads, others meditate for 5 minutes.
Shift gears as you line up. Tense muscles don't work smoothly. Joke, and enjoy the festive air, energy and enthusiasm. This relaxes muscles through the body and gets them ready.
Race Nutrition Countdown. I begin my eating countdown the day before by eating small meals every 2-3 hours. On each, it's okay to eat a little protein with carbohydrates that you know will be digested easily. Your goal is to eat just enough to leave you satisfied, but not full, for 2 hours or so.
Be sure to drink water or an electrolyte beverage with your snacks. That afternoon and evening I'll take water and juices regularly. If I'm hungry I'll eat only easily digestible food, such as bread or energy bars. I'll obviously avoid fried or greasy food or other foods that are hard to digest, like peanut butter or dairy products. I'll also stay away from high roughage items like salad, bran, etc.
The carbo-loading dinner before a race is great social fun. It's okay to eat a little, but don't overeat and avoid salty food, particularly if the weather is predicted to be warm. Loading up too much the night before can lead to unloading during the race
Wake up 3-4 hours before the race. During the first 2-3 hours, take 6 ounces of water or sports drink every hour.
About 60-90 minutes before the start, I usually eat an energy bar and have a cup of coffee as logistics permit.
Hopefully, I'll have some water with me at the start to sip, but primarily to dump on my head if the day is warm. It may look strange, but it works! (If you want to try this routine, test it out on your long runs first.)
Caffeine. There is now strong evidence that a cup of coffee an hour before a race will improve performance. This drug helps mobilize free fatty acids and triglycerides, making them available for energy utilization in the blood stream. It also helps you to wake up and get your sewage system cleaned out, avoiding the last minute lines at the "porto-johns". Too much caffeine, however, can cause dehydration and may negatively influence your heart rhythm. Be careful and try it out on several trial runs before using it in races.
Recovery MODE (Post race)
Even if you've run twice as far as you've ever raced before in your life, you can be back to your normal running routine very quickly by following a few simple steps, before and after your race. By mentally and physically preparing for the morning after, you can reduce the negatives, while emotionally riding the wave of positive momentum from even the toughest of races.
Think about wearing a compression sleeve: Studies show that compression sleeves around the calf muscle can improve performance, reduce muscle damage and lower the chance of blood clots. It helps to wear compression sleeves during long training runs, but there seems to be no problem in wearing them for the first time in a race.
During the race: Be sure to take walk breaks from the first few minutes, based upon your pace. (Follow tips given during training period). In several surveys, runners who used to run continuously averaged 13+ minutes faster in a marathon by using the correct strategy of Run Walk Run. It is also best to start the race more slowly than you think you can run.
At the finish line: Even if you don't want to, keep walking after you cross the finish. Within 30 minutes of the finish, eat a snack of 200-300 calories. It's best if this has 80% simple carbohydrate and 20% protein. If this is not available, consume simple carbohydrates and avoid any fat. Keep walking for at least half a mile or so to keep the blood pumping out the waste products and infuse the muscles with oxygenated blood.
Soak in a cool tub: This does not have to be an ice bath. The temperature of the water needs to be 20 degrees cooler than body temperature-and most water from the "cool" water tap will supply this. Soak the legs for 15 to 20 minutes.
Throughout the afternoon: After a meal and a shower, walk for 30-60 minutes very easily-just keep the legs moving. Drink water, sports drink, and/or citrus juice and eat some low fat protein with other carbohydrates. For the first hour after a marathon, it's best to drink no more than 27 oz total. You've earned your food rewards, but don't gorge yourself. Continue to drink and eat snacks. For the next few days, you may want to increase your consumption of vitamin C to speed up healing of little micro-tears in your muscles and tendons.
The next day: Walk for 30-60 minutes or more. The pace can be as slow as you wish, just keep moving. If you have soreness, the walking will work it out quicker than sitting on a couch. Be sure to drink 4-6 oz. of fluids every hour, including electrol or gatorade or any other sports drink, over the next few days.
Two days after-your return to running day: Start by walking for 5-10 minutes. Then, insert a 30-60 second run segment, every 1-3 minutes. Adjust the walking and running so that you feel comfortable and are not straining. The return to short segments of gentle running will speed up the recovery of race-weary muscles. The total time for the runs should be 20-45 minutes. Continue to alternate your exercise: walking one day and run/walking the next.
The Post-Race Letdown: Even with the best preparation, there will be a natural motivational lull after a race-even the most focused athletes experience a psychological letdown. But by setting a goal, even before the first race, you can shift gears: schedule social runs with friends every month, scenic runs, and fun events.
Note: The compression sleeves may speed recovery and reduce the possibility of blood clots after the run. Research shows that compression sleeves around the calf muscle can improve performance also.
Step in my shoes
1. Be prepared to spend at least 30 minutes in selecting your running shoes.
2. Do not take a friend's advice, as what works for them may not be right for you.
3. Bring your current pair of running shoes and a pair of your running socks.
4. Make sure you get a salesperson who asks you about your running, including such things as goals, mileage, terrain, past or current injuries, and chronic problem areas. Try to get a salesperson that is a runner him or herself.
5. Your salesperson should watch you run in a neutral pair of shoes to determine your specific foot function and biomechanics, and make recommendations based on their observations.
6. Then the salesperson should watch you in the recommended shoes to verify the correctness of each model for you.
7. Running shoes are designed with specific features that are intended to work for certain foot functions (floppy, rigid, etc). Remember that foot function is not the same as foot type. For instance, just having a flat foot (fallen arches) does not indicate that you have a "floppy" foot that rolls inward excessively and, therefore, needs a motion control shoe (this is a common misunderstanding that we often encounter).
8. The fit should be comfortable - meaning snug but not tight. There should be a little play or room in the forefoot. When standing, allow about a thumb's width between your toes and the end of the shoe. There is no consistency to running shoe sizing. In general, you'll tend to need a larger size than your dress shoe size. It is okay for women to wear men's shoes and men women�s if it helps you get a better fit (as a general rule, there is a size and a half difference, so, for example, an 11 women's would be a men's 9).
9. In sum, the two equally important variables in shoe selection are that the shoe fits your foot well AND is appropriate for your foot function.
10. As a general rule try on at least a couple of different models for comparison.
11. Don�t write off a shoe company because one of their models didn't work for you.
12. Tune out the advertising hype. Shoe enhancers (air, gel, etc) should be viewed as icing on the cake. They can't make a poorly designed or manufactured shoe good all on their own, and, if the shoe is well designed and manufactured it would be good even without an enhancer.
13. Never let cosmetics be a significant factor in your decision.
14. The cushioning in a running shoe lasts, on average, 400 to 600 miles. However, the shoes will have a progressive breakdown over time whether being used or not. Your body and feet will let you know when the shoe is no longer providing the cushion and support needed.
15. If you absolutely, positively feel compelled to wash your running shoes, DO NOT immerse them in water. Use a damp cloth or an old toothbrush and let them air-dry naturally.
16. KEEP RUNNING SHOES AWAY FROM HEAT SOURCES. Do not put them in dryers, on radiators or heating vents, nuke them in the microwave or bake them at 350. Do not leave them in your car or out in the direct sunlight in hot weather. Heat will dry out your cushioning materials prematurely and can cause the shoe to separate by hardening the glues that hold it together.
17. Do not let the outer sole wear through to the midsole material. If you notice the outer sole wearing down, use a urethane type product like Freesole, Shoe Goo, or Eternal Sole to extend the life of the outer sole until you've reached the 400-600 mile range of effective midsole cushioning (see #14).
18. Remember, the most expensive shoe purchase you can make is the one where you buy a pair that does not fit properly and/or is not right for your foot function.
Know your foot type
Pls add the ppt u were using earliier
* We must review different brands According to foot type
Most runners think they should stretch just before running. You see them everywhere, legs on benches, leaning against buildings-getting ready to run. We don't recommend this. Just before running, the muscles are tight and may pull or strain easily. You are particularly at risk early in the morning when you're cold and blood flow is minimal. Pushing a cold muscle, tendon or joint often leads to injury.
After running? Stretching right after running is also a risky proposition. The muscles don't simply stop all activity when you stop running. They are still "revved up" and ready to respond for about 30 minutes; stretching may cause them to spasm. When they are working hard like this, a stretch often activates the stretch reflex - leaving you tighter than before.
When, then? The best time to stretch is after the body is warmed up, relaxed, and when the blood is moving. Since many runners do stretch incorrectly, it's best to wait and stretch after warming up. Don't stretch to warm the muscles up; it won't work. Stretch in the evening, for example, or throughout the day as you have time. Many of people use stretching as a nice way to prepare for sleep.
What to wear....Hot weather
Wear Synthetic-blend Clothing Avoid wearing cotton when running because it holds your sweat and doesn't dry quickly, which can lead to chafing. Synthetic fabrics (such as CoolMax or Dri-Fit) wick moisture away from your skin so cooling evaporation can occur. Although the technical fabric running clothes may cost a little more, you'll appreciate the comfort -- especially during long runs.
Dress Lightly Light-colored, loose-fitting clothing will help your body breathe and cool itself naturally. Tight clothing restricts that process, and dark colors absorb the sun's light and heat. Light colors reflect the sun from your skin.
Use Sunscreen Apply your sunscreen (at least SPF 15) before you get dressed for your run. Some summer running clothes are made of mesh or very thin fabric, so they might not provide protection from the sun's rays. Also, your clothes move when you run (or you may choose to take off some clothes, like your shirt). So it's best to make sure
What to wear...Cold weather
Head and Neck On cold days, you'll lose a reported 10% of your heat from your head, so it's important to keep it covered.
Thermal hat: A fleece or wool hat is perfect for keeping your head warm during winter runs. You can easily tuck it into your pants if you feel like you're starting to overheat. Neck Gaiter or Bandana: Often worn by skiers, a neck gaiter can be extremely valuable on a frigid, windy day to protect your neck and face. You can pull it up over your mouth to warm the air you're breathing in, which is especially helpful when you first start your run. Some runners wear a simple bandana over their mouth for the same purpose.
Balaclava: Also known as a ski mask, a balaclava is a type of headgear that covers your whole head, exposing only your face or part of it, and sometimes only your eyes. They're usually made of fleece or wool and are only necessary if the temperature or wind chill is below 10 degrees F.
Lower Body Tights/Running Pants: Your legs generate a lot of heat so you don't need as many layers on your lower body. You can usually wear just a pair of tights or running pants made of synthetic material such as Thermion, Thinsulate, Thermax, Coolmax, polypropolene, and/or silk. If it's below 10 degrees F (temperature or wind chill), you may want to consider two layers on your lower body: a wicking layer of tights, and a wind-proof layer such as track pants.
Upper Body The key to winter running dressing, especially with your upper body, is layering. Not only do layers trap body heat, they allow sweat to move through the layers of clothing. The moisture is wicked away from your first layer to your outer layers, and then evaporates. Here's a guide to how you should layer on your upper body:
Wicking Base Layer: The layer closest to your body should be made from a synthetic wicking material, such as DryFit, Thinsulate, Thermax, CoolMax, polypropolene, or silk. This will wick the sweat away from your body, keeping you dry and warm. It's very important to make sure you don't wear cotton for this layer because once it gets wet, you'll stay wet. When it's above 40 degrees F, you can usually wear just a long-sleeve base layer.
Insulating Layer: Your second or middle layer, which is needed for very cold weather (below 10 degrees F), should be an insulating material, such as fleece. This layer must continue wicking moisture away from the skin. It should have the perfect balance of trapping some air to keep your warm, yet release enough vapor or heat to avoid overheating. Some fabrics suggested for your second layer: Akwatek, Dryline, Polartec, polyester fleece, Microfleece, Thermafleece and Thermax.
Wind- and Water-proof Outer Layer: This layer should protect you against wind and moisture (rain, sleet, snow), but at the same time allow both heat and moisture to escape to prevent both overheating and chilling. It's a good idea to wear a jacket with a zipper for this layer, so that you can regulate your temperature by zipping it up and down. Suggested outer layers: ClimaFit, Gore-Tex, Microsuplex, nylon, Supplex, and Windstopper. If it's between 10 and 40 degrees F, you can usually get away with a wicking base layer and an outer layer.
Gloves/Mittens: You can lose as much as 30% of your body heat through your extremities, so it's important to cover those hands. On cold days, wear gloves that wick away moisture. When it's extremely cold, mittens are a better choice because your fingers will share their body heat.